"Business Week": Al build the US medical drugs Botox Botox is Born | Business Week | El build | Botox

  Botox anti-wrinkle has a magical effect of birth and manufacturing process。
Botox based on the scientific community one of the most toxic substances known botulinum manufacturing, global sales expected to reach $ 4.0 billion in 2020。
  El build Irvine, Calif Botox into the laboratory is not good, not easy to go out into the once。 But first it is to sign a disclaimer: in entering these heavily guarded laboratories 18-36 hours, visitors may have double vision, speech difficulties, limb weakness and eventually paralysis of the respiratory system。
But do not worry。   If you sign a disclaimer go inside, the beginning of the entrance is a key input password to open the door, then the door is more password。
Only a few people at work or walk。 Go inside very far behind the double windows are still more cut off, and finally came to the table with a metal enclosed。 Everything here is subject to video surveillance。
All activities record each monitor。 Security watched the coming and going from the room with a shield wall of people。   Such scrutiny and careful protection is not built El sold drugs Botox is not a competitor to steal – although Botox is worth protecting, Botox last year sales of $ 2.8 billion。
Take a variety of security measures because, for many years the young drug happens to be one of the most toxic substances known by the scientific community are made by people to get rid of wrinkles。   Botulinum toxin is extracted from botulinum toxin。 Botox thriving breeding in poorly stored canned foods。 Botox is very toxic, will be able to make a little due to respiratory muscle paralysis and suffocation, is considered one of the most deadly potential bioterrorism agents around the world, the US CDC as a possible cause of public, animal and plant health a serious threat to the height of the controlled substances。
So even if these Botox missing a little bit, Al build must explain to the United States Center for Disease Control。
When it was built to Al manufacturing facilities in Ireland, the journey reminiscent of action to defend the president's Secret Service, but less public attention。   Like so many baby aspirin dose of botulinum toxin that sufficient global supply botulinum year。
This toxin extracted from a larger source, lock somewhere in the United States, leading the list of governments and companies in a well-protected only row of people know exactly where children。
Occasionally (Al build will not say how often) some of botulinum toxin (Al built will not say how many) secretly transported to the laboratory studies Irvine。
Even more rare it is to take a private jet with botulinum toxin by a security escort to the factory in Ireland。
  Scientists need to cause massive damage to what dose of botulinum toxin disagree。 Almost no data in this regard。
But in 2001, "Journal of the American Medicine," the research article said that if one gram crystalline form of botulinum toxin uniformly dispersed and inhaled will cause more than 100 deaths。 What conditions need experts disputed the actual weaponization of Botox, Botox but the possibility of manufacturing bombs mere presence on the US government in perpetuity。 Al built thus in striking position。 The US government stepped up vigilance Al build their own secret, under the joint action of the two, almost unbreakable get Botox quasi-monopoly position。 Al Construction said botulinum neurotoxin accounted for 90% of the medical market, 75% of the US medical market。   Only the United States alone will be hundreds of botulism occur each year, a number of deaths。
Earlier this year it was in a gas station on the outskirts of Sacramento after eating bad shortbread death, the culprit is contaminated cheese sauce。   1820 years ago, a German doctor, poet Kenner (JustinusKerner) first announced what he called "sauce poisoning" an accurate description of the symptoms: drooping eyelids, accompanied by difficulty swallowing and breathing。
In the late 19th century, a team playing at the funeral musicians appear importance and muscle paralysis after eating a ham at least three deaths。
Belgium microbiology professor EmileVanErmengem discovered botox from this tragedy。
Ermengem this pathogen is considered to be named, he named according to their sausage (sausage) Latin name botulus。   The US government worried that weapons of Clostridium botulinum are not unfounded。 In urging the UN prosecutors, a large number of Al- Hussein Iraq admitted purified botulinum toxin for chemical and biological weapons warheads 25 years ago in 1991 the use of。
Earlier, the era of Nazi Germany reserve concerns Botox led coalition to develop vaccines and vaccination preparations before the Normandy landing, but the German intelligence ruled out the use of Botox weapons, so vaccination is not implemented。
Also during World War II, the United States began to study Botox own manufacturing biological weapons, this work indirectly leads to Botox。
  Botox is basically Scott (AlanScott) Monk Mainz (EdSchantz) of the invention, the use of botulinum two scientists distinct purposes。 20 1960s and 1970s, ophthalmologist Scott exploring methods of treatment in patients with strabismus, still more concerned about the military rather than medical Heights。
Mainz purified botulinum toxin is still in Mali Frederick, Maryland Chemical Corps, then went to University of Wisconsin complete purification process。
After a colleague introduced two ties still to Mainz supply of Botox Scott。
  At that time control of Botox basically does not exist。 Mainz is still the meat toxin contained in a metal tube inside, then put a metal pipe sent through the US Postal Scott。
Scott is the meat toxin into drugs, then around his own breakthrough company founded a company called Oculinum。
  The drug, also known as Oculinum, 1989 Nian approved for the treatment of strabismus and blepharospasm。 Al built first obtain permission from Scott in the hands of the drug, and then in 1991 bought directly (the following year changed its name to Clostridium botulinum)。
El build the outset treated with great caution botulinum know if misused may produce serious harm。
  Al built Botox Chief Scientific Officer Breen (MitchellBrin) almost from start to finish played a key role in the drug development process in。 1980 Bollinger Columbia University neuroscientist specializing in movement disorders。 Brin and his colleagues get Botox supply from Scott there, and Brin has been the role of medication approved by the US regulatory authorities to assess its human botulism。
Brin began on the face, chin, neck, limbs, severe muscle atrophy of patients testing Botox。
He diminished the effectiveness of botulinum toxin in awe, still like to show the former spasm patients before and after being cured of botulinum contrast Videos。 Brin's office is like a Botox museum, stood memorabilia collected over the years, including a set of Russian dolls get Botox when introduced to Russia。 Botox is the Brin's life, his California license plate number is BOTOX。
  Botulinum efficacy as follows: human muscle control by the motor nerve, motor nerve to release a chemical command muscle contraction。 Botox is hindering the release of chemical substances。
Today, Botox is approved for nine kinds of medical uses – including treatment of chronic migraine, overactive bladder and severe muscle spasms, the person being botulinum toxin to treat depression treatment trials and studies of atrial fibrillation。 US doctors use Botox is also expanding: The next area is a square jaw and neck beauty。
Herbert said, was built in the Al acquisition of Botox, Botox he believes sales of $ 10 million or。 Today, Botox sales expected in 2020 to nearly $ 4 billion。
  Al built neurotoxin never intended to become a large company。
The company was founded in the 1950s, it was a Los Angeles family run pharmaceutical company, Allergan production known as anti-allergy nasal drops。 Old co-founder Herbert (GavinHerbertSr。) Also try to develop drugs to thumb-sucking addiction without success。 A friend had recommended the development of El build the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis eye drops, so old Herbert developed the first American antihistamine eye drops。 This is the first big success was built Ayr。   Small Herbert took over the company in mid-1957, the company moved to an old theater。
Screening room is used as aseptic filling area, a balcony and a stage used as a storage area。
To the 1970s, Al has become a listed company to build a flourishing production of contact lenses and eye drops and looking to expand。
It was at that time little Herbert discovered Westport Ireland。
  Ireland's northwest coast was in deep economic trouble, Westport unemployment rate up to 30%。 A local politician to convince Westport industrial factory establish a committee aimed at attracting American companies settled。
The plant has been vacant, until the emergence of small Herbert。
It is tax relief incentives to attract small first came to Westport Herbert, when he was looking at a second site to make contact lenses。   Westport is a town of only 6,000 people, 10 years ago, the subject of a Broadway musical。
Westport who depend on agriculture and fishing, and now relies on two other resources。
One is tourism, Westport has been issued by the Irish government's coveted "fashion town" (TidyTown) title。 Another resource is Botox。   And sold drugs common situation, as Botox is completely accidental discovery。 A doctor couple, Vancouver ophthalmologist Carruthers (JeanCarruthers) and her husband, dermatologist Alastair (AlastairCarruthers) inadvertently found botulinum anti-aging properties。 Carruthers in 2012 at the TED lecture recalls that she was being treated for an eye spasm of female patient。
Once this patient did not complain of her eyebrows shot at, saying injections in that part of her beautiful。
Meanwhile Alastair looking for better treatments to eliminate frown lines。 They were investigated forehead wrinkle cooperation with botulinum toxin。
The couple receptionist to be their first patient。
As Carruthers said, a few days time the receptionist's forehead smooth and more youthful glow。 But to find someone willing to accept the facial Botox injections are not easy subjects。 So Carruthers decided to experiment on himself, and soon there is no shortage of subjects problem。
  According to research firm SSR, Botox priced at about $ 60 a usually at full price rather than discount sales。
By revenue, about 55% of the botulinum medical, and the remaining 45% for insurance does not reimburse medical cosmetic。 These people pay the full price of Botox, plus the cost of medical doctors prescribing Botox cosmetic。   Some large global pharmaceutical companies have tried to develop its own neurotoxin drugs but without success。
In 2009, spent $ 1.1 billion acquisition of development is also extracted from Clostridium botulinum experimental drug PurTox mentor。
Five years after Johnson stopped PurTox R & D。 After a potential competitor to the US Food and Drug Administration to encourage the development of botulinum biosimilar drugs。 However, there is no drug Botox and rival。
As an attempt to develop biosimilar drug Botox one of the most powerful strength of the company, Mylan company told investors in March this year, interest in this area, but not go all out。
  Botox Empire unbreakable partly because the drug is extremely complex。   Al Actavis was built in 2015 for about $ 66 billion acquisition of。
Actavis reservations Al build name, description, Botox strong brand strength。 There is a new company its own problems。
A year ago, CEO Sanders (BrentSaunders) with a friendly face an enlightened big pharmaceutical companies appear committed to limit drug prices rise。 This image of the end of October this year, when Al build a payment hold its second largest drugs to an American Indian tribe, the treatment of dry eye RESTASIS intellectual property rights。 Indian tribes in the United States enjoy sovereign immunity, a move designed to thwart Al build a form of patent litigation。
Critics fierce criticism Ayer built。 Bloomberg said Al build the practice dirty shameless and totally wrong。   Maybe Al Botox is built from somewhere in the suburbs of Irvine, departed for Westport。 Al botulinum toxin build will not disclose where or how landing ship from landing in Ireland Westport。 Al built Westport, general manager of the factory Coffey (PaulCoffey) said delivery of botulinum toxin never left El-built control, only a handful of people know the delivery status。
Botox and delivery is also very common, the middle interval may be one or more years。   Coffey said that despite the current world is all kinds of crazy behavior, but do not worry about Al build their security processes。 As to whether Sanders visited the heavily guarded Westport production area, or whether he is entitled to enter, Coffey replied "absolutely not."。   If you are trying to enter the factory Sanders Westport, several roads out of the city he wants in a corner, looking printed with the name of a construction company Al brown small logo in Westport。 This points to identify a narrow path, then a long winding road。 Botox will be shipped in along this road, through meadows and splendid gardens, passing security 24 hours on duty in a small house。 After the park is a beautiful ground shows old Herbert love of gardening。 (Old Herbert retired in mid-1995, now 85 years old, is now the owner of Newport Beach, California, a family of nursery Roger'sGardens。
) Kofi like to security than in a factory to make layers of the onion, purified botulinum toxin will be stored in the onion。
Botox storage room to install more surveillance cameras, these cameras in addition to protecting the greatest assets of Al build, but also to help engineers to remotely diagnose equipment problems。 Allowed to enter the room staff are few and must be put on civilian clothes took off his clothes before entering a full surgery。
  Botox onions from the heavily guarded center began processing into the market, Westport busy factories employ more than 800 people。
Botox is the first step in making salt water mixed with tiny purified botulinum toxin。
The mixture flows through a series of pipes into the aseptic filling room。 Temperature between filling, humidity, pressure, inert particles closely monitored indicators。
Is there a bacterial Ayer built in the sterile room to take a month to extract Jovan samples tested in air。 Even if there is a bacillus, will be investigated。
  Botulinum manufacturing process is essentially an automated process, the manufacturing apparatus installed on microscopic camera tracking。 The final step is the production of botulinum toxin injection vials salt solution, however Tempered powder。 These bottles one by one boxing, into the hands of doctors around the world。 One of the substances on the planet's most feared is now basically harmless, a very precious thing, to be injected into wrinkled brow or sweaty palms。 No more chartered by a security escort, but by delivery。 (Lemon Nan / compiler)。